His grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo.
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He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5. Of this, he later wrote: "My family never paid much attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child! Indeed, by , the year he finished his El Filibusterismo , this second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal means persecution!
I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in law.
Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano , he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin , he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow.
Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West. At Heidelberg , the year-old Rizal, completed in his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker.
There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope invented by Hermann von Helmholtz to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye.
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- Essays of Rizal!
Twice a week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends. Rizal was a polymath , skilled in both science and the arts. He painted, sketched, and made sculptures and woodcarving. Rizal was also a polyglot , conversant in twenty-two languages. Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr.
Adolf Bernhard Meyer , as "stupendous. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of expertise, in architecture, cartography , economics, ethnology , anthropology , sociology, dramatics , martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason , joining Acacia Lodge No. His biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of switching from one language to another.
They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a young Asian encountering the West for the first time. They included his later trips, home and back again to Europe through Japan and the United States,  and, finally, through his self-imposed exile in Hong Kong.
Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila now Ateneo de Manila University , Rizal who was then 16 years old and a friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to visit Rizal's maternal grandmother in Tondo, Manila. It was the first time they met and Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others, rosy—cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a mysterious charm.
They suggested that Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda. He complied reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for him, Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz. This period of his life included his recorded affections of which nine were identified. In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a ' lady of the camellias '. The writer, Maximo Viola , a friend of Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas 's novel, La dame aux camelias , about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on record, there was no account in Viola's letter whether it was more than one-night and if it was more a business transaction than an amorous affair.
When Rizal left for Europe on May 3, , Rivera was 16 years of age. Their correspondence began when Rizal left a poem for Rivera saying farewell.votaketu.cf
Essay of Rizal - Words | Bartleby
The correspondence between Rivera and Rizal kept him focused on his studies in Europe. They employed codes in their letters because Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. Katigbak described Rivera as having been greatly affected by Rizal's departure, frequently sick because of insomnia. When Rizal returned to the Philippines on August 5, , Rivera and her family had moved back to Dagupan, Pangasinan. Rizal wanted to marry Rivera while he was still in the Philippines because of Rivera's uncomplaining fidelity. Rizal asked permission from his father one more time before his second departure from the Philippines.
The meeting never happened. In , Rizal stopped receiving letters from Rivera for a year, although Rizal kept sending letters to Rivera. The reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance between Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway engineer who fell in love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's mother.
His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including doodlings on pieces of paper. In her diary, she wrote of a day Rizal spent there and regaled them with his wit, social graces, and sleight-of-hand tricks. In London, during his research on Antonio de Morga 's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Reinhold Rost of the British Museum who referred to him as "a gem of a man. They were ultimately bequeathed to the Rizal family to form a treasure trove of memorabilia. They applied to marry but, because of Rizal's reputation from his writings and political stance, the local priest Father Obach would only hold the ceremony if Rizal could get permission from the Bishop of Cebu.
He was unable to obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to Catholicism. After accompanying her father to Manila on her return to Hong Kong, and before heading back to Dapitan to live with Rizal, Josephine introduced herself to members of Rizal's family in Manila. His mother suggested a civil marriage , which she believed to be a lesser sacrament but less sinful to Rizal's conscience than making any sort of political retraction in order to gain permission from the Bishop. The couple had a son who lived only for a few hours after Josephine suffered a miscarriage; Rizal named him after his father Francisco.
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In , Rizal, 29, left Paris for Brussels as he was preparing for the publication of his annotations of Antonio de Morga 's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas He lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters, Catherina and Suzanna, who had a niece Suzanna "Thil" , age Historian Gregorio F. Zaide states that Rizal had "his romance with Suzanne Jacoby, 45, the petite niece of his landladies. Rizal's Brussels stay was short-lived; he moved to Madrid, giving the young Suzanna a box of chocolates.
She wrote to him in French: "After your departure, I did not take the chocolate. The box is still intact as on the day of your parting. There will never be any home in which you are so loved as in that in Brussels, so, you little bad boy, hurry up and come back…"  In , Slachmuylders' group arranged for an historical marker honoring Rizal to be placed at the house.
He discussed the significance of Palm Sunday in socio-political terms: "This entry [of Jesus into Jerusalem] decided the fate of the jealous priests, the Pharisees , of all those who believed themselves the only ones who had the right to speak in the name of God, of those who would not admit the truths said by others because they have not been said by them.
That triumph, those hosannas, all those flowers, those olive branches, were not for Jesus alone; they were the songs of the victory of the new law, they were the canticles celebrating the dignification of man, the liberty of man, the first mortal blow directed against despotism and slavery". For the latter, he used funds borrowed from his friends. These writings angered both the Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos due to their symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Church.
Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt , an Austria-Hungary -born professor and historian, wrote that the novel's characters were drawn from real life and that every episode can be repeated on any day in the Philippines. Blumentritt was the grandson of the Imperial Treasurer at Vienna in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and a staunch defender of the Catholic faith. As Blumentritt had warned, these books resulted in Rizal's being prosecuted as the inciter of revolution. He was eventually tried by the military, convicted and executed.
Teaching the natives where they stood brought about an adverse reaction, as the Philippine Revolution of took off virulently thereafter. As leader of the reform movement of Filipino students in Spain, Rizal contributed essays, allegories , poems, and editorials to the Spanish newspaper La Solidaridad in Barcelona in this case Rizal used a pen name, "Dimasalang", "Laong Laan" and "May Pagasa". The core of his writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of individual rights and freedom; specifically, rights for the Filipino people.
He shared the same sentiments with members of the movement: that the Philippines is battling, in Rizal's own words, "a double-faced Goliath"—corrupt friars and bad government. His commentaries reiterate the following agenda: [note 8]. The colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms.