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Antithesis is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned Antithesis can be defined as "a figure of.

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How much will it cost to send this letter to? Will I have to work on Saturdays? It's a buyer's market not aseller's market and there aren't that many buyers around withmoney," said Paul McTaggart, an analyst at Credit Suisse.

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Question: where were the Metro-North bosses during all this blatant no-work thievery? Each object is identified by a user-assigned key. Additionally, objects can be downloaded using the BitTorrent protocol. Requests are authorized using an access control list associated with each object bucket and support versioning, disabled by default. Every item in a bucket can be served as a BitTorrent feed.

The Amazon S3 store can act as a seed host for a torrent and any BitTorrent client can retrieve the file; this can drastically reduce the bandwidth cost for the download of popular objects.

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While the use of BitTorrent does reduce bandwidth, AWS does not provide native bandwidth limiting and, as such, users have no access to automated cost control; this can lead to users on the free-tier of small hobby users, amassing dramatic bills. AWS representatives have stated that a bandwidth limiting feature was on the design table from to , but in the feature is no longer in development. A bucket can be configured to save HTTP log information to a sibling bucket. There are various User Mode File System -based file systems for Unix-like operating systems that can be used to mount an S3 bucket as a file system such as S3QL; the semantics of the Amazon S3 file system are not that of a POSIX file system, so the file system may not behave as expected.

Amazon S3 provides the option to host static HTML websites with index document support and error document support. This support was added as a result of user requests dating to at least In the past, a visitor to this URL would find only an XML-formatted list of objects instead of a general landing page to accommodate casual visitors. However, websites now hosted on S3 may designate a default page to display and another page to display in the event of a invalid URL, such as a error.

Amazon S3 allows users to disable logging. Amazon S3 provides an API for developers. The AWS console provides tools for managing and uploading files but it is not capable of managing large buckets or editing files. Third-party websites like S3edit. Amazon S3 offers four different storage classes that offer different levels of durability and performance requirements.

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Amazon S3 Standard is the default class. Amazon S3 Standard Infrequent Access is designed for less accessed data. Typical use cases are disaster recovery solutions. Amazon S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access is designed for data, not needed but when required, needs to be accessed rapidly. Data is stored in one zone and if that zone is destroyed, all data is lost. Amazon Glacier is designed for long-term storage of data, infrequently accessed and where retrieval latency of minutes or hours is acceptable.

Netflix uses Amazon S3 as their system of record.

gelatocottage.sg/includes/2019-11-30/3689.php Netflix implemented S3mper, to address the Amazon S3 limitations of eventual consistency. S3mper stores the filesystem metadata : filenames, directory structur. Computer science Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate and communicate digital information.

A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems, its fields can be divided into practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications.

Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human—computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful and accessible; the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.

Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in In , Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner , he may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system.

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In , Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he released his simplified arithmometer , the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine , in , which gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine , he started developing this machine in , "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer". In , during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, considered to be the first computer program.

Around , Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information.

During the s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general.

The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world; the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the s and early s; the world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science , began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights.

Although many believed it was impossible that computers themselves could be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it became accepted among the greater academic population, it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. During the late s, the computer science discipline was much in its developmental stages, such issues were commonplace.

Time has seen significant improvements in the effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. Computers were quite costly, some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage.


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Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is. Founded in in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States , MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant , sea-grant , space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River.

Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March , 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers.

The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. In , a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay , Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers , was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia , wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.

The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in ; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school.

In under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College , which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In , the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.

Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership.

There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.


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  7. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In , the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.

    The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in In January , the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York , who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. In the s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering".

    Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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    Related Images. YouTube Videos. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate, store, and communicate digital information. Ada Lovelace is often credited with publishing the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer. Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, , through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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